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Computer Science: Citation Styles for Engineering

Research guide for the Department of Computer Science.

Citation Styles for Engineering

Many of you will be using IEEE Citation Style. However, some of you may be using other engineering citation style guides. Please let me know if you need any assistance with citations.

 

 

IEEE Citation Style Manual

IEEE Citation Style

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional organization supporting many branches of engineering, computer science, and information technology. In addition to publishing journals, magazines, and conference proceedings, IEEE also makes many standards for a wide variety of industries.

IEEE citation style includes in-text citations, numbered in square brackets, which refer to the full citation listed in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically. For examples, see the IEEE Editorial Style Manual

 

The Basics:

In-text Citing   It is not necessary to mention an author's name, pages used, or date of publication in the in-text citation. Instead, refer to the source with a number in a square bracket, e.g. [1], that will then correspond to the full citation in your reference list.

  • Place bracketed citations within the line of text, before any punctuation, with a space before the first bracket.
  • Number your sources as you cite them in the paper. Once you have referred to a source and given it a number, continue to use that number as you cite that source throughout the paper.
  • When citing multiple sources at once, the preferred method is to list each number separately, in its own brackets, using a comma or dash bteween numbers, as such: [1], [3], [5] or [1] - [5].

The below examples are from Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide.

Examples of in-text citations:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"This theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."

"Scholtz [2] has argued that..."

"Several recent studies [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that...."

"For example, see [7]."

 

Creating a Reference List   The Reference List appears at the end of your paper and provides the full citations for all the references you have used.  List all references numerically in the order they've been cited within the paper, and include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference.

  • Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page.
  • Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page. The hanging indent highlights the numerical sequence of your references.
  • The author's name is listed as first initial, last name. Example: Adel Al Muhairy would be cited as A. Al Muhairy (NOT Al Muhairy, Adel).
  • The title of an article is listed in quotation marks.
  • The title of a journal or book is listed in italics.

The below examples are from the IEEE Citation Reference Guide and Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide.

Examples of citations for different materials:

Material Type

Works Cited

Book in print

[1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Chapter in book

[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

eBook

[3] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.

Journal article

[4] J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasability," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.

eJournal (from database)

[5] H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, http://find.galegroup.com. [Accessed May 31, 2005].

eJournal (from internet)

[6] A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience," Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July 2003. [Online]. Available: http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume6/number12/. [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

Conference paper

[7] L. Liu and H. Miao, "A specification based approach to testing polymorphic attributes," in Formal Methods and Software Engineering: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2004, Seattle, WA, USA, November 8-12, 2004, J. Davies, W. Schulte, M. Barnett, Eds. Berlin: Springer, 2004. pp. 306-19.

Conference proceedings

[8] T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conference on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.

Newspaper article (from database)

[9] J. Riley, "Call for new look at skilled migrants," The Australian, p. 35, May 31, 2005. [Online]. Available: Factiva, http://global.factiva.com. [Accessed May 31, 2005].

Technical report

[10] J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas,
Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.

Patent

[11] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.

Standard

[12] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

Thesis/Dissertation

[1] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.

Chemical Engineering Citation Style

From the CEP Reference Style Guide of the AIChE

General Style:

Information appears in the following general order: author, title, publisher, page numbers, date. Individual elements of the citation are separated by commas, and a period is used at the end. If there are more than two authors, list only the first author followed by et al. The specific information that should be included depends on the type of reference:

Periodical: Author's last name and initials in bold, title of article in quotation marks, title of periodical in italics (underline if italics are not available), volume number in bold, issue number in parentheses, page numbers (inclusive), date in parentheses.

 

Pedron, S., et. al., “Synthesis and characterization of degradable bioconjugated hydrogels with hyperbranched multifunctional cross-linkers,” Acta Biomaterialia, 6 (11), pp. 4189-4198 (Nov. 2010).

Book: Author's last name and initials in bold, title of book in quotation marks, edition number if appropriate, publisher's name, city and state of publisher, page numbers (inclusive, unless entire book is being referenced), date in parentheses.

 

Garner, G. O., “Careers in Engineering,” 2nd ed., VGM Career Books, Chicago, IL (2003).

Other Sample Citations:

Homoki, G. G., and K. N. Vernekar, "Materials Selections for Sludge Incinerator Heat Exchangers," in "Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems," G. Y. Lai and G. Sorell, Eds., NACE International, Houston, TX, pp. 20-1 to 20-8 (1992).

Perry, R. H., and D. W. Green, Eds., "Mass Transfer and Gas Absorption," Chapter 14, in "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook," 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1984).

McLarnon, C. R., and J. L. Duncan, “Testing of Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture with Multi-Pollutant Control Technology,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Washington, DC (Nov. 16–20, 2008).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Compiling Air Toxics Emissions Inventories," U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, EPA/450/4-86-010, NTIS No. PB86-238086 (July 1986).

"The Abnormal Situation Management Joint Research and Development Consortium," available via http://www.iac.honeywell.com/Pub/Tech/asmwww/html on the WWW.

ASCE (for Civil Engineering)

From the ASCE On-Line Authors' Guide (revised):

References. In the text, cite publications by listing the last names of the authors and the year, which is called the author-date method of citation; e.g., (Duan et al. 1990; Frater and Packer 1992a). Prepare an appendix listing all references alphabetically by last name of the first author. For anonymous reports and standards, alphabetize by the issuing institution. Double-space the reference section.

Make sure reference information in the APPENDIX. REFERENCES is complete and accurate ... including as necessary and in the following order:

last names and initials of all authors;
year of publication;
title of paper, report, or book chapter (in quotes);
title of book or name of periodical; volume number; issue number (or month);
name of publisher (for books and proceedings);
city and state of publication (for books, proceedings, and non-U.S. journals);
and inclusive page numbers.
 

Examples

Aanen, P. (1991). Nature engineering and civil engineering works, H. W. Knottnerus, translator, Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands.

ABAQUS/Explicit update manual, version 5.6. (1996). Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorenson Inc., Pawtucket, R.I.

"Acoustic strain gauge's ease bridge monitoring ." (1997). CivilEngrg. ASCE, 67(9), 83.

Al-Mutairi, N. M.. (1995) "Kuwait oil-based pollution: effect on building material." J. of Matls. in Civil Engrg., ASCE, 7(3), 154-160.

ASTM. (1981). "Standard method of testing piles under static axial compressive load."  D1143-81, Philadelphia, Pa.

Barragy, E., Walters, R., and Carey, G. F.  (1995). "Tital simulation using conjugate gradient methods." Finite Element Modeling of Environmental Problems: Surface and Subsurface Flow and Transport, G. F. Carey, ed., Wiley, West Sussex, Eng., 115-135.

Chern, C.  (1969). "Ultimate strength of transversely and longitudinally stiffened plate girders." PhD thesis, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.

Chiu, H.-S., Chern, J.-C., and Chang, K.-C. (1996a) "Long-term deflection control in cantilever prestressed concrete bridges. I: Control method and algorithm." J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, 122(6), 489-494.

Chiu, H.-S., Chern, J.-C., and Chang, K.-C. (1996b) "Long-term deflection control in cantilever prestressed concrete bridges. II: Experimental verification." J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, 122(6), 495-501.

Daoud, O. E. K. (1997) "Discussion of 'Kuwait oil-based pollution: effect on building material by Naji M. Al-Mutairi." J. of Matls. in Civil Engrg., ASCE, 9(1), 50.

Der, J. J. (1974) "Oil contaminated beach cleanup." Tech. Note, Naval Civil Engrg. Lab. TN-1337, Port Huneme, Calif.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (1990). "Highway safety design practices and criteria." Safety Design Division, HSR-20, McLean, Va.

Federal Register. (1997). 62(No. 248; December 29), 67572-67585.

Harik, I. E. , Street, R., Wang, Z., and Allen, D. L. (1996). "Accelerations and time histories for earthquakes affecting Kentucky's bridges." Analysis and Computation, Proc. 12th Conference held in conjunction with Structures Congress XIV, Chicago, Illinois, 464-471.

International Conference of Building Officials. (1997). Uniform building code. Whittier, Calif.

Klaue, H.  (1995).  " Entwicklungstendenzen in der internationalen Klimaschutz- und Luftreinhaltepolitik [Development trends in international climate protection and air pollution control politics]." Glueckauf, Essen, Germany, 131(3), 113-121 (in German)..

Ricken, H. (1994) Der Bauingenieur : Geschichte eines Berufes.  Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin (in German).

Standard & Poor's industry surveys. (1997). Standard & Poor, New York, N.Y.

ACM (for Computer Science and Engineering)

From the Author Guidelines of the Communications of the ACM

References ... to previous work should be included at the end of the article. References must be ordered alphabetically by first author and numbered. All listed references must be referred to in text by their corresponding number.

Communications Reference Style

Journal:

Parker, R. Lotus copyright protection is turning into a feeding frenzy. Infoworld 12,28 (Jul. 1990), 42-49.

Book:

Hoffman, W.M. and Moore, J.M., Eds. Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology. Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.

Proceedings:

Rumbaugh, J.E. Controlling propagation of operations using attributes on Relations. In Proceedings of OOPSLA '86 (Sept. 29-Oct. 2, Portland,Oreg.). ACM/SIGPLAN, New York, 1986, pp. 406-416.

ASME (for Mechanical Engineering)

From the ASME's Guidelines

Text Citation. Within the text, references should be cited in numerical order according to their order of appearance. The numbered reference citation should be enclosed in brackets.

Example: It was shown by Prusa [1] that the width of the plume decreases under these conditions.

In the case of two citations, the numbers should be separated by a comma [1,2]. In the case of more than two references, the numbers should be separated by a dash [5-7].

List of References. References to original sources for cited material should be listed together at the end of the paper; footnotes should not be used for this purpose. References should be arranged in numerical order according to the sequence of citations within the text. Each reference should include the last name of each author followed by his initials.

(1) Reference to journal articles and papers in serial publications should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the cited article in quotes, title capitalization
  • full name of the publication in which it appears
  • volume number (if any) in boldface (Do not include the abbreviation, "Vol.")
  • issue number (if any) in parentheses (Do not include the abbreviation, "No.")
  • inclusive page numbers of the cited article (include "pp.")

(2) Reference to textbooks and monographs should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the publication in italics
  • publisher
  • city of publication
  • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include "pp.")
  • chapter number (if any) at the end of the citation following the abbreviation, "Chap."

(3) Reference to individual conference papers, papers in compiled conference proceedings, or any other collection of works by numerous authors should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the cited paper in quotes, title capitalization
  • individual paper number (if any)
  • full title of the publication in italics
  • initials followed by last name of editors (if any), followed by the abbreviation, "eds."
  • publisher
  • city of publication
  • volume number (if any) in boldface if a single number, include, "Vol." if part of larger identifier (e.g., "PVP-Vol. 254")
  • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include "pp.")

(4) Reference to theses and technical reports should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title in quotes, title capitalization
  • report number (if any)
  • publisher or institution name, city

Sample References

[1] Ning, X., and Lovell, M. R., 2002, "On the Sliding Friction Characteristics of Unidirectional Continuous FRP Composites," ASME J. Tribol., 124(1), pp. 5-13.
[2] Barnes, M., 2001, "Stresses in Solenoids," J. Appl. Phys., 48(5), pp. 2000–2008.
[3] Jones, J., 2000, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 6.
[4] Lee, Y., Korpela, S. A., and Horne, R. N., 1982, "Structure of Multi-Cellular Natural Convection in a Tall Vertical Annulus," Proc. 7th International Heat Transfer Conference, U. Grigul et al., eds., Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 2, pp. 221–226.
[5] Hashish, M., 2000, "600 MPa Waterjet Technology Development," High Pressure Technology, PVP-Vol. 406, pp. 135-140.
[6] Watson, D. W., 1997, "Thermodynamic Analysis," ASME Paper No. 97-GT-288.
[7] Tung, C. Y., 1982, "Evaporative Heat Transfer in the Contact Line of a Mixture," Ph.D. thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
[8] Kwon, O. K., and Pletcher, R. H., 1981, "Prediction of the Incompressible Flow Over A Rearward-Facing Step," Technical Report No. HTL-26, CFD-4, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA.
[9] Smith, R., 2002, "Conformal Lubricated Contact of Cylindrical Surfaces Involved in a Non-Steady Motion," Ph.D. thesis, http://www.cas.phys.unm.edu/rsmith/homepage.html