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Citation Style Guides

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  • What's the difference? Chicago is an exhaustive style manual designed for professionals in the publishing industry or related fields whereas Turabian is a shorter version intended for students and researchers.   
  • Keep in my mind that indentation is important with footnotes and endnotes, too. Footnotes and endnotes are indented .5in on the first line whereas bibliography entries are indented on subsequent lines. 
  • While the bibliography or reference list is organized alphabetically, endnotes and footnotes are listed in the order they appear in the text.
  • Keep in mind that the order of the author's first and last names switch depending on which entry you are using. In a note entry: First Lastname. In a bibligraphic entry: Lastname, First. 

Chicago Systems

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two different systems of citing: notes-bibliography and author-date

Which one should I use? That depends on the discipline for which you are writing. Those whose disciplines fall within the realm of the humanities (i.e. literature, history, or the arts) will typically use what the manual refers to as the notes-bibliography system, which employs the use of footnotes or endnotes that correspond to raised superscript numbers in the text. 

Others whose disciplines fall under the sciences and social sciences will typically use the author-date system in which brief in-text citations set off by parentheses correspond to full bibliographic citations arranged alphabetically in the reference list. 

Ultimately, the choice is up to the professor or instructor of the course! Please refer to your syllabus or contact your instructors.


Notes (Footnote or Endnote):

1. First Lastname, Title of Book Italicized (Location: Publisher Name, Year), page(s).

2. Ted Sorensen, Kennedy (New York: Harper Perennial2009), 380-99.

Shortened Notes (for same source): 

3.  Lastname, Title of Book Italicized, page(s).

4. Sorensen, Kennedy, 380-99.

Bibliographic Entry (in the reference list alphabetically):

Lastname, First. Title of Book Italicized. Location: Publisher Name, Year. 

Sorensen, Ted. Kennedy. New York: Harper Perennial, 2009.


In-text (as they appear): 

(Sorensen, 2009, 380-99)

Bibliographic entry (in alphabetical order & same format as above):

Sorensen, Ted. 2009. Kennedy. New York: Harper Perennial.

Chicago Book Citations

Book (single author): provided in the examples in the box above

Book (multiple authors): 


          4. Aaron Thompson and Joseph Cuseo, Infusing Diversity & Cultural Competence into Teacher
, (Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 2012), 64-70.


Thompson, Aaron, and Joseph Cuseo. Infusing Diversity & Cultural Competence into Teacher
 Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 2012.

In-text: (Thompson and Cuseo, 2012, 64)

Book Chapter: 


          6. Adnan Nasution, "National Unity: Respect for and Protection of Human Rights," in The Indonesian Dream: Unity, Diversity and Democracy in Times of Distrust, ed. Thang Nguyen (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International, 2004), 148.


Nasution, Adnan. "National Unity: Respect for and Protection of Human Rights."
           In The Indonesian Dream: Unity, Diversity and Democracy in Times of Distrust, edited by
           Thang Nguyen, 148-155. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International, 2004. 

In text: (Nasution 2004, 151)

Chicago Periodical Citations


          1. First Lastname, "Title of article," Periodical Title Italicized volume, issue# (year): page. URL or doi.

          4. Robert Rix, "Magnetic Cure in Blake's The French Revolution," Explicator 68, no. 3 (2010): 167.


Rix, Robert. "Magnetic Cure in Blake's The French Revolution." Explicator 68, no. 3 (2010): 167-

In-text: (Rix 2010, 168-69)

Chicago Website Citations


          2. "About: Mission, Vision, and Values," Texas Tech University Libraries, accessed September 14, 2017,

          3. Tomás Saraceno, "Would You Live in a Floating City in the Sky?" filmed April 2017 at TED2017, Vancouver, BC, video, 11:03,


Saraceno, Tomás. "Would You Live in a Floating City in the Sky?" Filmed April 2017 at TED2017,
          Vancouver, BC, video, 11:03.

Texas Tech University Libraries. "About: Mission, Vision, and Values," Accessed September 14, 2017.


(Texas Tech University Libraries, n.d.)

(Saraceno 2017)