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Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering

General Guide for Industrial Engineering

Citation Styles for Engineering

APA is becoming more often used in the engineering classes as a citation style.

Texas Tech has a great guide for the APA Style guide located here.

The biggest thing to remember about citations is that they are based on a pattern. The second biggest thing is that the citation generators, either through the University Libraries or other places will not always give you the correct information. So you should follow the pattern of the citation style and check the ones you copy and paste from the databases against the examples on our pages or within the APA style guide.



ASCE Citation Examples

From the ASCE Guide for Authors (2019):

References. In the text, cite publications by listing the last names of the authors and the year, which is called the author-date method of citation; e.g., (Duan et al. 1990; Frater and Packer 1992a). Prepare an appendix listing all references alphabetically by last name of the first author. For anonymous reports and standards, alphabetize by the issuing institution. Double-space the reference section.

Make sure reference information in the APPENDIX. REFERENCES is complete and accurate ... including as necessary and in the following order:

last names and initials of all authors;
year of publication;
title of paper, report, or book chapter (in quotes);
title of book or name of periodical; volume number; issue number (or month);
name of publisher (for books and proceedings);
city and state of publication (for books, proceedings, and non-U.S. journals);
and inclusive page numbers;


ASCE uses the author-date method for in-text references, whereby the citation reads as the last names of the authors, then the year (e.g., Smith 2004, or Smith and Jones 2004).
A References section must be included that lists all references alphabetically by last name of the first author. References must be published works only. Exceptions to this rule are theses, dissertations, and “forthcoming” articles, all of which are allowed in the References list. References cited in text that are not found in the reference list will be deleted but queried by the copyeditor. Likewise, all references included in the References section must be cited in the text. Examples of reference formatting follow:
If a whole book is used (or pages here and there throughout the book), page numbers need not be given. If no author is listed, titles should be alphabetized. If a specific chapter is being used, the chapter title and inclusive page numbers should be included. Reports must include the full institution name and location.
Evans, G. M., and J. C. Furlong. 2003. Environmental biotechnology: Theory and applications. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Moody’s municipal and government manual. 1988. New York: Moody’s Investors Service.
Building Codes and Provisions
Building codes, provisions, and standards should be listed alphabetically by the abbreviated name of the promulgating institution.
ACI (American Concrete Institute). 1989. Building code requirement for reinforced concrete. ACI 318-89. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI.
BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International). 1993. The BOCA national building code. Country Club Hills, IL: BOCA.
CEN (European Committee for Standardization). 1992. Design of steel structures, part 1.1.Eurocode 3, Brussels, Belgium: CEN.
Data SetsReferences for data sets should include author name, year of publication, titles (followed by edition or version number) in quotation marks, publisher or distributor, access date, and electronic identifier (DOI or URL).
Ansolabehere, S., M. Palmer, and A. Lee. 2014. “Precinct-level election data. V1.” Harvard Election Data Archive. Accessed January 20, 2017.
Thernstrom, S. 1986. “Boston mobility study, 1880.” ICPSR 7550. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Accessed November 28, 2017.
WebsiteThe following elements should be included: author’s name or owner of the website (if known); year of publication or last revision (if available; use “n.d.” if no date is available); full title of the specific page, in quotation marks; title of website (if applicable), in italics; the date of access, and the full web address.
Arizona Dept. of Commerce. 2005. “Community profile: Hualapai Indian Reservation.” Accessed March 17, 2014.
Foucher, J. 2017. “The role of construction companies before, during, and after disaster.” Construct Connect (blog). Accessed October 11, 2017.
Journal Articles
The standard format for a paper published in a US journal is as follows:
Beskos, D. E. 1987. “Boundary element methods in dynamic analysis.” Appl. Mech. Rev., 40 (1), 1–23.

Citations specifically published from ASCE journals, will look like this:

Metzger P. T., Zacny K., & Morrison, P. (2020). "Thermal extraction of volatiles from lunar and asteroid regolith in axisymmetric Crank–Nicolson modeling." Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 33(6): 04020075 .


ASCME Examples

From the ASME's Guidelines

Text Citation. Within the text, references should be cited in numerical order according to their order of appearance. The numbered reference citation should be enclosed in brackets.

Example: It was shown by Prusa [1] that the width of the plume decreases under these conditions.

In the case of two citations, the numbers should be separated by a comma [1,2]. In the case of more than two references, the numbers should be separated by a dash [5-7].

List of References. References to original sources for cited material should be listed together at the end of the paper; footnotes should not be used for this purpose. References should be arranged in numerical order according to the sequence of citations within the text. Each reference should include the last name of each author followed by his initials.

(1) Reference to journal articles and papers in serial publications should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the cited article in quotes, title capitalization
  • full name of the publication in which it appears
  • volume number (if any) in boldface (Do not include the abbreviation, "Vol.")
  • issue number (if any) in parentheses (Do not include the abbreviation, "No.")
  • inclusive page numbers of the cited article (include "pp.")

(2) Reference to textbooks and monographs should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the publication in italics
  • publisher
  • city of publication
  • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include "pp.")
  • chapter number (if any) at the end of the citation following the abbreviation, "Chap."

(3) Reference to individual conference papers, papers in compiled conference proceedings, or any other collection of works by numerous authors should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title of the cited paper in quotes, title capitalization
  • individual paper number (if any)
  • full title of the publication in italics
  • initials followed by last name of editors (if any), followed by the abbreviation, "eds."
  • publisher
  • city of publication
  • volume number (if any) in boldface if a single number, include, "Vol." if part of larger identifier (e.g., "PVP-Vol. 254")
  • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include "pp.")

(4) Reference to theses and technical reports should include:

  • last name of each author followed by their initials
  • year of publication
  • full title in quotes, title capitalization
  • report number (if any)
  • publisher or institution name, city

Sample References

[1] Ning, X., and Lovell, M. R., 2002, "On the Sliding Friction Characteristics of Unidirectional Continuous FRP Composites," ASME J. Tribol., 124(1), pp. 5-13.
[2] Barnes, M., 2001, "Stresses in Solenoids," J. Appl. Phys., 48(5), pp. 2000–2008.
[3] Jones, J., 2000, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 6.
[4] Lee, Y., Korpela, S. A., and Horne, R. N., 1982, "Structure of Multi-Cellular Natural Convection in a Tall Vertical Annulus," Proc. 7th International Heat Transfer Conference, U. Grigul et al., eds., Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 2, pp. 221–226.
[5] Hashish, M., 2000, "600 MPa Waterjet Technology Development," High Pressure Technology, PVP-Vol. 406, pp. 135-140.
[6] Watson, D. W., 1997, "Thermodynamic Analysis," ASME Paper No. 97-GT-288.
[7] Tung, C. Y., 1982, "Evaporative Heat Transfer in the Contact Line of a Mixture," Ph.D. thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
[8] Kwon, O. K., and Pletcher, R. H., 1981, "Prediction of the Incompressible Flow Over A Rearward-Facing Step," Technical Report No. HTL-26, CFD-4, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA.
[9] Smith, R., 2002, "Conformal Lubricated Contact of Cylindrical Surfaces Involved in a Non-Steady Motion," Ph.D. thesis,