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Citation Style Guides: Home

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Which Style Manual Should I Choose?

—When you create citations in a bibliography, footnotes, or endnotes, you should use a citation manual. There are several types of citation styles:
  • MLA (Modern Language Association)
  • APA (American Psychological Association)
  • Chicago
  • Turabian
  • CSE (Council of Science Editors)

Most academic disciplines have a standard style manual that is used by the discipline’s practitioners.

  • Psychology and many of the other Social Sciences use APA
  • English and some other Humanities use MLA
  • Historians use Chicago or Turabian
  • Sciences use CSE

Managing Citations

EndNote Basic Icon

EndNote Basic (Web) is a web-based tool for managing and citing references in papers and creating bibliographies.

  1. Collect references from electronic and traditional sources.
  2. Organize your references for your research topics and papers.
  3. Create a formatted bibliography for your paper or cite references while you write.

Why Cite?

—It is important to credit the authors of the resources you consulted in your research. This credit is given through a proper citation that includes the original author's name, the title of the work, the date of publicationinformation enabling others to access the research you cited. You should cite sources when
  • you use a direct or indirect quotation.
  • you paraphrase or summarize someone else's writing.
  • you refer to someone else's research or ideas.
Reasons for citing resources:
  • Avoiding plagiarism and academic dishonesty
  • Demonstrating the originality of your research by distinguishing your ideas from those expressed by other scholars
  • Showing that you examined related research
There are multiple steps to citing your resources properly. These may include
  • Creating a list of citations for the resources for a bibliography, works cited, or reference list.
  • Citing the resources in footnotes or endnotes.
  • Citing the resources in the text of your document.
  • Obtaining permission to use a quote or content created by someone else.

Research Integrity

Here are a few recommended resources on research integrity and citing resources.

Subject Guide

Kimberly Vardeman
Texas Tech University Library
Basement, Office 4
(806) 834-4156