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TTU-CR Citation Central

This guide has the purpose to provide a basic guideline in the different forms of citation and software for the TTU-CR students and faculty.

APA Style

This guide offers as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic style established by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more complete details, see the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Note that the manual includes essential information on manuscript preparation (e.g., margins, use of the passive voice), creating figures and tables, and ethics.

APA Bibliographic Citations

Bibliographic Citations: General Guidelines

  • Present sources in alphabetical order by the first author's last name, or, if no author is listed, by the first element of the citation (generally the title).
  • During your research, develop a consistent system for noting bibliographic information (author, title, date, publisher, source, page numbers) and keep it with your notes or copies of the source material you used.
  • Always consult your professor, assignment details, and/or course syllabus for specific requirements.

APA In-Text/Parenthetical Citations

In-Text/Parenthetical Citations:

Use the author-date citation system. Each in-text citation must correspond to a source in the reference list. When paraphrasing an author or citing an entire work, include the name of the author and the year of publication. Either provide the publication date in parentheses when the author’s name is mentioned in the narrative or within parentheses at the end of a sentence.

Example: Smith (2008) found that…     OR: The study showed that… (Smith, 2008).

If you directly quote from a source, the in-text citation must also include the page number preceded by a “p.”. If the author and date were cited in the sentence already, place the page number in parentheses at the end of a sentence containing a direction quotation. If the author and date were not used in the sentence narrative, place the page number in the parenthetical citation using this format - (Author last name, publication year, p. [page number]).

          Examples: According to Smith (2008), “Quotation from source” (p. 144)... OR: “Quotation from source” (Smith, 2008, p. 144).

For more information about in-text citations, including citing works with multiple authors, consult the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, the Purdue Online Writing Lab APA Formatting and Style Guide online or Scribbr's pages regarding APA Formatting.

Sample List of References

Sample list of references

Citation Example

Format Type

Cameron, J., Hooks, I., Kaysing, N., Hoffman, M., Hackett, S., Butler, L. L., & ... Crawford, S. M. (2011). Should P-16 physical education programs focus more on wellness and obesity prevention objectives and goals? JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(9), 12-18.

Journal article, more than 7 authors, pagination restarts with each issue, no doi available

Chafee, Z., Jr. (1962). Freedom of speech and press. In W. S. Dowden & T. N. Marsh (Eds.), The heritage of freedom: Essays on the rights of free men (pp. 140-156). New York, NY: Harper.

Chapter in an edited book

Dennis, E. E., & Vanden Heuvel, J. (1991). Emerging voices: East European media in transition: A report of the Gannett Foundation Task Force on Press Freedom in Eastern Europe (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Gannett Foundation Media Center.


FCC ruling to stifle debate, critics say. (2003, June 13). The Buffalo News, p. C1.

Newspaper article, unsigned

Foerstel, H. N. (Ed.). (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: An encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Encyclopedia or dictionary

Freedom of the press: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 92d Cong., 1 (1972).

Government hearing, whole hearing

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932).

ERIC Document

Jeffords, S., & Rabinovitz, L. (Eds.). (1994). Seeing through the media: The Persian Gulf war. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Edited book

Paretsky, S. (2003, June 2). The new censorship. New Statesman, 759, 18-20.

Magazine article

Ramírez, C. Z., & Verkuyten, M. (2011). Values, media framing, and political tolerance for extremist groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 1583-1602. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00775.x

Journal article, 7 or fewer authors, continuous pagination

Sanders, B. (Producer/Director). (1987). Making the news fit [Motion picture]. United States: Cinema Guild.

Film or video

Terregino, C. A., & Saks, N. S. (2010). Creative group performances to assess core competencies in a first-year patient-centered medicine course. Medical Education Online, 15, Article ID 4879. doi:10.3402/meo.v15i0.4879.

Article retrieved from web site