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TTU-CR Citation Central

This guide has the purpose to provide a basic guideline in the different forms of citation and software for the TTU-CR students and faculty.

MLA Style

This guide offers as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic style established by the Modern Language Association (MLA). For more complete details, see the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook. Note that the handbook includes essential information on paper preparation (e.g., margins, academic tone in writing, creating figures and tables, ethics, and more).

MLA Bibliographic Citations - Basics

Bibliographic Citations: General Guidelines

In-Text/Parenthetical Citations

  • Use the author's last name and the page number (Smith 10) when page numbers are available (not for websites or videos).
  • Do not repeat the author's name in your parenthetical citation if you used it within your sentence narrative signal phrasing.

Use the author-page citation system. Each in-text citation must correspond to a source in the reference list. When paraphrasing or quoting an author or citing an entire work, include the name of the author and the page number from where it appeared. Either provide the page(s) in parentheses when the author’s name is mentioned in the narrative or within parentheses at the end of a sentence and after closing quotation marks.

Example: Smith (10) found that…  OR:  The study showed that… (Smith 10).

Example: According to Smith (10), “Quotation from source” ... OR: “Quotation from source” (Smith 10).

For more information about in-text citations, including citing works with multiple authors, consult the most recent edition of the MLA Handbooks, the Purdue Online Writing Lab MLA Formatting and Style Guide online, or Scribbr's pages regarding MLA Formatting.

Works Cited: General Guidelines

  • List sources in alphabetical order by the first author's last name, first word of a corporate author, or by the first citation element (often the title if there is no author).
  • Use hanging indents.
  • Always consult your professor, assignment instructions, &/or syllabus for specific requirements.

Sample List of Works Cited with Format Type Designation

Citation examples based on different formats

Citation Example

Format Type

Allen, Anita L. "Privacy in Health Care." Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Stephen G. Post, editor, 3rd ed, vol. 4, Macmillan-Thomson, 2004.

Encyclopedia article, signed (print)

Allison, Nancy, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines,  Rosen, 1999.

Edited book

"Bhutan." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008.

Encyclopedia article, unsigned (online)

Bulliet, Richard W. "Twenty Years of Islamic Politics." Middle East Journal vol. 53, no. 2, 1999, pp. 189-200.

Journal article (print)

Burgers, Johannes Hendrikus, and Jennifer Mitchell. "Masochism And Marriage In The Rainbow And Ulysses."  Modernists at Odds: Reconsidering Joyce and Lawrence, Matthew Kocchis, Heather Lusty, Sebastian Knowles, editors, UP of Florida, 2015, pp. 175-195.

Chapter in an edited book

Harlow, Caroline Wolf. Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.  U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2005.

Government publication (online)

Hollmichel, Stefanie So Many Books. 2003-13,


It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra, performances by James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. RKO, 2001.


Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era. U of California P, 1971.

Book by a single author

McGurl, Mark. "The Institution of Nothing: David Foster Wallace in The Program." Boundary 2: An International Journal of Literature And Culture vol. 41, no. 3, 2014, pp. 27-54.

Journal article (from an online database)

"Richard Swift." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 28 April 2006. Swift.

A page on a website

Silverstein, Ken. "Millions for Viagra, Pennies for Diseases of the Poor: Research Money Goes to Profitable Lifestyle Drugs." Nation, 19 July 1999, pp. 13-19.

Magazine article (print)

Swift, Richard. "FCC Ruling to Stifle Debate, Critics Say." Buffalo News, 13 June 2003.

Newspaper article (online)

Tutton, Mark. "Designers Developing Virtual-Reality 'Cocoon'." Cable News Network, 11 Sept. 2007.

Article retrieved from website

United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. GPO, 2000.

Government publication (print)

Vice Presidential Candidate Gov. Sarah Palin (AK) Full Speech at the RNC. C-Span, 3 Sept. 2008.

Online video